AUGUST GARDENING CALENDAR

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AUGUST GARDENING CALENDAR

GENERAL

August is often dry and hot, so be sure to water your crops and ornamentals that need irrigation to produce, especially those that must not dry out (primroses, chrysanthemums, etc.).  Pay attention to the timing of harvesting vegetables and cut flowers.  Harvest and dry herbs also.  Collect seed from perennials, shrubs, trees to plant; gather flowers and pods to dry.  Prepare soil and beds for planting lawns, fall bulbs, perennials and roses using organic amendments.   Be sure to bring in house plants when night temperatures drop below 45 degrees.  Apply potash in the form of kelp meal or alfalfa meal mid-month to harden trees and shrubs for winter.  Stop watering garlic, storage onions and shallots in late July or about August first.  The bulbs will need to dry off in the ground for two weeks before digging.  Slow down watering of ripening potatoes when foliage dries.  For long-season winter squashes, pumpkins or melons Pinch off female flowers to hasten ripening before frosts of those set on the vines. 

VEGETABLES

During the first week of August, direct sow spinach, radishes, turnips, peas and lettuce.  In cold frames, greenhouse or under tunnels, sow cabbage and cauliflower for late fall/winter frame crops. 

Other crops that can be sown  and grown on inside a frame or tunnel for extended harvest into winter include: beets, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, chicory, dandelion, kohlrabi, lettuce, mizuna, tatsoi, onions, onion sets, parsley, parsnips, radishes, sorrel, and turnips. 

When harvesting cabbage, cut heads above the bottom leaves at a steep angle to avoid rain or irrigation water rot.  After new cabbage buds appear, thin to 3-4 per plant for a crop of mini cabbages.  Cabbage can be prevented from cracking by withholding water and root pruning on one side or twisting the head ¼ turn.

Harvest onions, garlic and shallots.  Dry them on screens in a shed or garage.  Hang dried bulbs in net or jute bags to keep them dry.  

FLOWERS

This month, direct sow seeds of biennials and early blooming perennials.  Sow bulb seeds.  Transplant seedling perennials out into nursery beds.   Direct sow pansy seed in place for next summer.  Cut back violas selected for division.  Encourage and peg down runners to replace mature violet plants.  Prepare frames to over winter violets to bloom in winter. 

Repot auricula primroses in first week of August; take of offsets and pot up.  Sow fresh auricula seed now, saving half for January/February.  

FRUIT

Tie paper bags loosely over grape clusters to protect from birds. 

TREES, SHRUBS AND ROSES

Do not give any nitrogen to your shrubs, roses and trees as that will cause late soft growth easily damaged by frosts.  It is helpful to apply potash instead, as described above.  In August you can plant lawn seed.  Make sure your soil is raked smooth and roll or stamp the seed in so it will not blow away.  A light mulch of dry grass clippings or pine needles will protect the seed until it germinates.  Water the seeded area three or four times a day for a few minutes each time to keep soil moist.  Usually, grass seed comes up within 10 days. 

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GROWING LETTUCE

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Lettuce 'Jericho'

GROWING LETTUCE

Lettuce is one crop we can grow here in Montana over a longer season than most vegetables.  Lettuce and many greens can be direct-seeded as early as March 21, even though the soil is still cool.  The minimum germination temperature for lettuce is about 35 degrees F. and 66 degrees F. is ideal.  A cold frame or tunnel placed over the seedbed will warm the soil and hasten germination, especially if it is in a sunny spot.  After planting, lettuce will be ready to cut in about three or four weeks.  Sow lettuce in succession, every two weeks or so, to provide a continuous harvest all season.  Lettuce prefers cooler weather and will turn bitter and bolt early if it is hot.  In hotter weather, plant successive crops about 10 days apart to ensure a constant supply.  Later, in cooler fall weather, stretch out the days a bit.  Lettuce can be sown as late as October 20th.  Use a poly tunnel or cold frame to protect late sowings from hard frosts.  In a cold frame, lettuce can be harvested quite late in the year.  A few varieties that tolerate colder weather and frosts include: ‘Merveille de Quatre Saisons’ an old French heirloom; ‘Red Oakleaf’; ‘Rouge d’Hiver’; ‘Valdor’ and ‘Valmain’. 

Sow lettuce at the rate of 60 seeds per foot in a 3” wide band in rows 12” apart .  Cover seed only 1/8” deep and firm gently.  Full sun is the best spot for lettuce.  Growing temperatures for lettuce range from 45 to 75 degrees F. with 60-65 degrees being ideal.   There are types of lettuce that tolerate warm weather better than others.  These varieties include: ‘Black-Seeded Simpson’; ‘Deer’s Tongue’; ‘Jericho’; and ‘Oakleaf’.  Your plants will grow best in cool days with cool nights.

The best soil pH for lettuce is about 6.0-7.5.  Since the plants have rather weak root systems, it is best if your soil is rich and moist.  Germination time varies from 2-15 days.   In the spring season, protect from cutworms with cardboard collars, or two layers of newspaper, or a layer of aluminum foil.   Water regularly; keep moist but not wet.  Water early in the day only, allowing leaves to dry before evening.  Regular watering is excellent, but do not allow soil to become saturated for long periods.  Lettuce does best with steady, even watering, especially in summer.

Pests on lettuce (besides cutworms) include: gophers, tarnished plant bugs, thrips, aphids, leaf miners, flea beetles, slugs, mites and nematodes.  One way to minimize pests is by growing your crop under insect fabric stretched over row covers.  Some diseases of lettuce are: early blight, verticillium wilt, mosaic, yellows and rust, but these are usually not troublesome here in Montana. 

Cut lettuce early in the morning with scissors, cutting only as much as you need for a day or two.  Try to keep it clean as you cut.  When ready to use, wash carefully.  After washing/drying make sure the leaves are not too wet when they are put into bags.  Stuff the bags loosely with the lettuce.  A person may add edible flowers of nasturtiums, pansies, or calendulas to a mix of greens to brighten up the look of a salad.  Keep cut lettuce as cool as possible to prevent wilting (45- 55 degrees, in high humidity and out of the sun).

JULY GARDENING CALENDAR FOR WESTERN MONTANA

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JULY GARDENING CALENDAR

Because July in often hot, water berries (they need constantly moist soil) as well as fruit trees and vegetables as needed.  After garlic, shallots and storage onions flag or look wilted, withhold water.  Carefully dig and cure them over wire (usually one week).  Decrease water to potatoes when tops begin to die back, though this will probably not happen until August this year.  Check for pests frequently (aphids, leafhoppers, squash bugs and leaf miners).  Weed squash, cucumbers, melons, pumpkins to increase production.   Clean and weed borders. 

VEGETABLES

Early in the month you can start some fall crops indoors to plant out in late August/early September: cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, late cabbage, Chinese cabbage, bok choi and radicchio.  All of these are plants that grow and produce well in the cool fall weather.  Plant them out in 5 to 6 weeks, when they have two sets of leaves.  Cauliflower should be ready about 55-60 days from transplanting (October).  Have covers ready for severe frosts below 26 degrees F.  The time period of late June and early July is the best time to plant seeds for healthy fall crops.  You can also direct sow several vegetables all month long: lettuce, kohlrabi, dill, rutabagas, Swiss chard, carrots, collards, endive, fennel, kale, peas, and scallions (green onions).  

For extended harvest into winter, the gardener can grow vegetables in protected frames or tunnels.  If covers are large enough for extended growing, direct sow: beans, broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, celery, kale, rutabaga, salsify and New Zealand spinach.    

If you started seeds in June, you can transplant out leeks.  Plant them deeply and cut the tops shorter.  Cool weather crops including Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and cauliflower are best transplanted out late in July.  Shade them to protect them from transplanting shock and August heat with cardboard or a row cover or tunnel using fabric instead of polyfilm. 

At blossom time, fertilize your peppers with 4 tablespoons Epsom salts in one gallon of water and repeat 2 weeks later.  Fertilize established asparagus with rotted, composted manure and June-bearing strawberries after harvest.  Watch for corn earworms and powdery mildew.  Hill up potatoes to keep the tubers cool.  Transplant and divide iris and primulas. 

Harvest: lettuce, carrots, beets, onions, leeks, peas, cucumbers, tomatoes, squashes, bush beans. 

FLOWERS

Sow seeds (in frames) of early-blooming perennials: primroses, lupines, tulips, and poppies.   Biennials, such as sweet William, Canterbury bells, sweet rocket and stocks can be direct sown now and into August.  Sow winter pansies, but also collect pansy seed from the plants you like the best.  Remove lanky, exhausted growths to encourage short new stems from the center.  Take cuttings of pansies for autumn planting.  Remove violet runners, mulch them, feed them and keep foliage moist by frequently spraying with water.  Take up spring bulbs such as tulips, hyacinths, fritillaries, colchicums, autumn crocuses, etc., when leaves are decayed.  Carefully dig them and dry over wire screen.  Propagate from offsets and store in cool, dry place for the summer. 

FRUIT

Pick up fallen fruit; check for canker.  Propagate strawberries by runners and plant them into new beds. 

TREES, SHRUBS AND ROSES 

Finish trimming evergreens, box edgings and all types of hedges early in the month.  Prune spring blooming shrubs now.  Water lawns during hot weather to keep them green.  Prune old-fashioned once-blooming shrub roses now, after blooms fade, removing no more than 1/3 length of canes.  Trim out old, non-productive and dead wood.  Have a great July!