PLANTING SPRING FLOWERING BULBS AND NATIVE WILDFLOWERS

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PLANTING SPRING-FLOWERING BULBS

 Tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, grape hyacinths, glacier lilies and crocus are adapted to most Montana climate zones (USDA zones 4 and 5).  Tulips are very hardy and adapted to the cold eastern Montana climate (USDA zone 3).  All should be planted in fall, usually in October or November.  You can plant spring-flowering bulbs until the ground freezes, but they will bloom better if you get them in before November 15, when soil is in the 40 degrees to 55 degrees range.    

SOIL PREPARATION

Bulbs prefer a well-drained location in the garden.  Tulips, hyacinths, crocus and grape hyacinths need full sun.  Daffodils and glacier lilies (trout lilies) like part shade, though daffodils will grow in full sun in Montana.  Daffodils are deer and rodent proof, but the others, especially tulips, need to be in a place protected from deer and voles.  The new wire baskets from Vole King are flexible and easy to place around your bulbs before you plant.  When a vole chews into the wire, its nose is poked by the wires curling back after being cut. 

Dig your bulb bed to 10 or 12 inches deep.  Sandy loam is the best soil for bulbs, but you can improve your soil by adding gypsum to break down clay, or peat moss, compost and bone meal.  Bone meal degrades into the soil while it adds phosphorous, which will promote good blooms.  Mix bone meal well with the soil in the bottom of the bed for best results.  PH should be about neutral for these bulbs, but hyacinths and tulips will tolerate more alkaline soils.  Plant tulips and daffodils at 5 per square foot, hyacinths and glacier lilies at 3 to 4 per square foot, and grape hyacinths and crocus at 8 to 10 per square foot.  After planting, backfill the soil but do not pack it down over the bulbs.  Water well. 

PLANTING DEPTH

The general recommended planting depth for bulbs is: 3 times the height of the bulb deep, pointed end up.  Tulips, hyacinths and daffodils should be planted about 6 to 8 inches deep; Grape hyacinths, crocus and glacier lilies about 4 inches deep. 

HEIGHT WHEN IN BLOOM

Our tulips grow to about 20 inches tall and bloom midseason.  Our daffodils bloom early and grow and bloom to about 16 inches.  Our hyacinths and glacier lilies bloom at about 10 inches, and bloom early.  Our grape hyacinths bloom about 6 inches high and bloom midseason.   Crocus bloom at 3 inches high and bloom very early. 

AFTERCARE

Leave foliage on your bulbs and let it die down naturally.  This feeds the bulbs so they will flower well the next year.  Most bulbs, especially tulips, like dry conditions after foliage dies down.  In some climates, or if summer bedding is planned for that location, people dig and store their tulip bulbs and replant them in fall.  Here in Montana, you can leave the bulbs in the ground if you give no additional summer water.  Do not water them until October to give the roots a boost before winter.  Spread bone meal over your bulb beds every October.  Glacier lilies like to grow in moist soil, but can tolerate dry soil conditions for a short period during late summer. 

 

PLANTING A WILDFLOWER MEADOW

 

A wildflower garden or meadow will attract and feed native pollinators, beneficial insects and birds.  Maintenance and watering is generally less than most gardens of ornamental plants, which require frequent watering and weeding. 

 

NORTHERN REGION WILDFLOWER MIX is a blend of annual and perennial flowers adapted to the Montana climate.  Flower height varies from about 8 inches to 5 feet.  This taller mix contains both native and introduced species.  Plant one pound for 2,000 square feet.

 

MONTANA NATIVE WILDFLOWER MIX contains only seed from plants native to Montana.  This shorter mix is a combination of annuals and perennials.  Flower height varies from 8 inches to 24 inches.   Plant one pound for 2,000 square feet.

 

The best time to plant wildflower mixes is in fall.  You can sow the seed mid-October into November and even into December.  If the soil is prepared the seeds can be spread right over the snow, but birds or rodents may eat some of the seeds.  Winter temperatures will stratify the seeds and help them to germinate at a higher rate than if planted in the spring.  

 

Prepare your spot in full sun, if possible, or part shade.  Remove weeds and grasses, cultivate lightly then rake the area smooth.  Mix the seed with coarse sand to spread it evenly, in a ratio of 3 parts sand to 1 part seed.  After you broadcast the seed, press it into the soil in the same way you would if you were planting grass seed.  If it does not rain or snow within a week, water the area well.  It is not necessary to add fertilizers, as wildflowers generally prefer a soil of low fertility.  

 

Every summer, you can gather seed from your wildflowers and sow it right in the same bed to perpetuate the show of flowers, or you can start a new bed. 

 

 

 

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OCTOBER GARDENING CALENDAR

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Fall started all of a sudden this year!  Now is the time to bring in any remaining vegetables to ripen, or cover them with a row cover designed to take frosts into the mid-20s.  Plant bulbs, wildflower mixes and hardy annuals.  Harvest apples and pears, and sow seeds of hardy trees and shrubs. 

With row covers and cold frames as protection crops can still be harvested into November.  Ventilate plants in frames and give air and water freely.  When it is cold, cover with mats or straw and do not let the sun shine on an open frame full of frozen plants.   

Finish digging potatoes early in the month in case we get a heavy frost. 

Harvest Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, lettuce, spinach and herbs.  Harvest and store cabbages late in the month: turn them upside down to dry, take off extra leaves and place them in a bin of sand in a cellar.  Or, place the cabbages in a trench filled with sand, cover them with more sand and place a water-proof cover (open at both ends) over the trench to keep them dry.  Close the ends with straw when frosty.  Thin spinach and lettuce planted last month.  If you have protected your pepper plants from frosts and heavy frost is on the way, pull up the plants and hang them upside down to ripen fruits.  Harvest ripe squash and pumpkins, leaving a one to one and a half inch stem.  Dig, divide and transplant garlic and shallots.  Hang onions to dry in an airy cool place.  Cut asparagus and perennial herbs back before winter.  Carrots may be left in the ground and covered with two feet of straw, leaves or peat moss to pick as needed most of the winter.   To prevent voles, cover the carrot bed with hardware cloth before you place the straw. 

Plant bulbs this month, finishing by November 15; give a top dressing of bone meal to the previous season’s bulbs beds.  Divide and replant peonies and plant wildflower seed. 

Divide perennials late in the month, after cool weather begins, into November.  Sow seeds of late-blooming perennials (to sprout in spring).  Trim lavenders and other shrubby herbs to a few inches and give them a light dressing of manure. 

If not already done, dig tuberoses, dahlias, amaryllis, gladioli and other tender bulbs.  Spread them out to dry in a warm room, clean off hair roots and decaying foliage and pack them up in dry boxes of sawdust.  Keep your bulbs in a cool, dark, dry, frost-free location.  Weed established bulb beds and spread bone meal as a top dressing. 

Harvest apples and pears for storage when the trees are dry.   To test for ripeness gently twist fruit gently one way or the other.  If it comes off easily it is ready to pick.  Place harvested fruit in heaps in a shed to dry further for 10 to 14 days.  Examine each fruit for bruises, which will cause rot in storage.  Wipe each one dry, wrap in paper and store in barrels; or, wipe dry and place in dry sand in the barrels.  Keep in a cool, dry cellar away from frost. 

Transplant trees, shrubs and fruit trees late in month. 

Watch for leafhoppers on roses and spray before severe frosts occur to get last generation before winter.  To protect tender roses over the winter, mound each plant with soil about 6 inches deep and place a layer of evergreen branches over that.  In the spring the soil can be removed gradually, about an inch at a time.  In the spring, uncover the plants gradually.  Use a gentle jet of water from a hose once a week or so, finishing about May 20.   If a heavy late frost threatens, place the evergreens over the crown of the plant again, removing them when weather warms. 

 

 

SOME NATIVE PERENNIALS TO PLANT IN FALL

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SOME NATIVE PERENNIALS TO PLANT IN FALL

Fall is a very good time to plant potted perennial plants.  Garden soil is still warm, enabling roots to grow quickly, therefore allowing perennial plants to establish well.  Root growth will take place all through the autumn, finally ceasing when the ground freezes in mid-November or even in December, depending on the year.  In autumn fewer weeds germinate so it is easier to keep beds clean while newly planted perennials establish themselves.  Fall planting ensures a heavier spring or summer bloom, too.  These same factors apply to the many kinds of bulbs we plant in fall.  Below is a list of excellent plants for Western Montana, including native wildflowers and some drought-tolerant perennials.   

Butterfly Weed Asclepias tuberosa   18”-2 ft. x 2 ft. wide (plant in full sun) zones 3-9.  This native plant blooms in summer with bright orange flowers which are an important nectar source for bees and butterflies.  The leaves are important as a nursery for Monarch butterfly larvae.   Butterfly weed grows well in dry, poor soils so it needs less water than most garden perennials.

Coreopsis Coreopsis grandiflora  18”-30” x 2 ft. wide (plant in full sun) zones 3-9.  Coreopsis is another native perennial that blooms for a long season, from early summer into fall.  The flowers are brilliant yellow and attract butterflies and bees.  Coreopsis likes a little more water than butterfly weed, but is drought tolerant once established.  It is quite easy to grow.

Echinacea Echinacea purpurea  3-4 ft. x 3 ft. wide (plant in full sun) zones 3-9.   This coneflower is native to the eastern half of the U.S.A. where it grows in dry woods and tall grass prairies.   Once established, coneflower is drought tolerant, needing about as much water as coreopsis.  The roots are used medicinally.   Flowers of the wild form are of soft purple and the bloom period lasts for months, beginning in mid-summer.   Echinacea is another excellent pollinator plant, attracting bees and butterflies. 

Echinacea Echinacea angustifolia  18”-2 ft. x 2 ft. wide (plant in full sun) zones 3-9.  This native echinacea prefers drier conditions than E. purpurea so is very well-adapted to our dry summers.   The plants are a bit smaller also.  The roots are used medicinally and the flowers are an excellent nectar source for bees and butterflies.   Flowering period is early through late summer. 

Blazing Star Liatris spicata  30” x 18” wide (plant in full sun) zones 3-9.  A wonderful native plant with soft purple plumes of long-lasing flowers that attract bees and butterflies.  The flowers can be used for cutting and last a long time.  Plants are easy to grow, needing about as much water as coreopsis, lupine and Echinacea purpurea.

Lupine Lupinus polyphyllus (Minarette Dwarf Hybrids) 16” x 16” wide (plant in full sun) zones 3-9.  Minarette hybrid lupines are descended from a species native to Montana.  They are very well-adapted to our climate and attract bees, butterflies and hummingbirds.  Flower colors of this strain of lupine are beautiful and include bicolor forms as well.   The plants flower in June-July. 

Monarda fistulosa  2 ft. x 2 ft. wide (plant in full sun) zones 3-9.  The common names for this plant are bee balm and wild bergamot.  This species is native to North America and has showy white to purple flowers that attract hummingbirds, bees and butterflies.  This wild species prefers a moist soil, where it will bloom larger and longer in mid to late summer. 

Bee Balm Monarda didyma Panorama Hybrids 30” x 30” wide (plant in full sun) zones 3-9.  These hybrids of a native eastern U.S. species are colorful, fragrant and attract hummingbirds, bees and butterflies.   Colors range from pink to red, burgundy, scarlet, purple and white.  Flowers appear July-September.  Bee balm likes a moist soil; the same conditions as M. fistulosa. 

Mexican Hat Ratibida columnifera  12”-36” x 18” wide (plant in full sun) zones 3-9.  The flowers of this native species look like a little orange and yellow sombrero.  The plants are drought tolerant and easy to grow.  Bees and butterflies love the flowers.   

 

 

2017 SEPTEMBER GARDENING

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We have had a very hot summer this year so watch for spider mites on your garden plants, especially those in hot, dry locations.   If you have kept your house plants outside, inspect them carefully before you bring them into the house.  Check for any sign of insects or diseases and if you find any, treat with organic pest controls.  Watch for slugs and cultivate to expose and destroy grasshopper eggs.  Also, watch for corn earworms. 

Another important pest in Western Montana gardens are voles.  Wrap your fruit trees for winter with plastic tree guards so that these rodents will not strip the bark.  An effective method to protect the root ball of trees from being dug into and eaten, is to plant them using wire baskets over the roots.  Voles cannot chew through hardware cloth or into the new vole wire cages.  Caging is a safe-for-the–planet method that works for fruit trees, roses, shrubs, perennials and bulbs.  Be sure to cover the surface of the ground inside the basket edge so rodents cannot burrow down from the top.

Harvest peas, beans and cucumbers consistently in September to keep them producing.   Late in the month remove blossoms from eggplant, peppers, melons and squash in order to direct energy into to ripening remaining fruits.  Cover sunflowers from birds and pinch tomato tips.  Cultivate or hoe around cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, turnips and celery.  Keep late maturing cauliflower and broccoli well-watered.  Plant garlic and shallots and over-wintering onion sets.  You can still direct seed a few plants for fall/winter greens: arugula, lettuce, radishes, cress, corn salad, chervil and kale. 

If you plan to grow crops under tunnels or in a cold greenhouse over the winter, plant seed (early in the month) of crops for winter use: chervil, kale, spinach, lettuce, radishes, corn salad, and winter cress.  Later in the month, from the 20th to the first week of October, plant seeds of cabbage, cauliflower and other brassicas for transplanting out into tunnels in OctoberHave winter covers ready by October 1. 

September is a good time to make new beds for growing mushrooms.  Well-rotted horse manure is excellent. 

Gather ripe seeds of any vegetables (or flowers) you want to save seed from.

Prepare beds for planting bulbs.  Sow seeds of bulbous flowers collected in summer.  Transplant peonies and lilies and dig dahlias after killing frost.  Transplant pinks and carnations (with root ball intact) late in the month and plant out any other perennials and biennials where they are to bloom.  Most perennials can be divided now and replanted where they are to bloom. 

Gather ripe fruit from apples and pears.  Remove diseased fruits and “mummies”, rake up leaves under fruit trees and destroy them (to prevent apple scab).  Prepare equipment to make cider. Prepare beds for planting fruit trees, using well-rotted manure, digging down 18 inches.  Keep strawberries free of weeds and the soil moist.  If you plan to force strawberries in winter, now is the time to take them up and pot them.  Cut a root ball out with a knife, trim off dead leaves and runners and pot into 7 or 8 inch pots.  Place them in shade and water well.  Then plunge the pots in earth up to the rim.  Take them up and into frames or greenhouse before cold weather. 

Protect ripening grapes from birds with netting or gauze; keep weeds away from plants.  If wasps are a problem, hang containers of sugar water to catch them. 

Trim branches of evergreens and walnut trees, so wounds will heal before winter.  Keep weeds cleaned out from nursery beds and plantings of young trees.  Lay down grass turf this month or plant lawn seed. 

September is an excellent time to apply an organic from of potash to your garden plants to strengthen stems and roots in order to ripen them before winter.  Kelp meal can be applied as a surface dressing and watered in or you can do a foliar spray of seaweed twice during the month of September.  Do not apply nitrogen this month as it forces growth that will surely be winter killed.

 

 

AUGUST GARDENING CALENDAR

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AUGUST GARDENING CALENDAR

GENERAL

August is often dry and hot, so be sure to water your crops and ornamentals that need irrigation to produce, especially those that must not dry out (primroses, chrysanthemums, etc.).  Pay attention to the timing of harvesting vegetables and cut flowers.  Harvest and dry herbs also.  Collect seed from perennials, shrubs, trees to plant; gather flowers and pods to dry.  Prepare soil and beds for planting lawns, fall bulbs, perennials and roses using organic amendments.   Be sure to bring in house plants when night temperatures drop below 45 degrees.  Apply potash in the form of kelp meal or alfalfa meal mid-month to harden trees and shrubs for winter.  Stop watering garlic, storage onions and shallots in late July or about August first.  The bulbs will need to dry off in the ground for two weeks before digging.  Slow down watering of ripening potatoes when foliage dries.  For long-season winter squashes, pumpkins or melons Pinch off female flowers to hasten ripening before frosts of those set on the vines. 

VEGETABLES

During the first week of August, direct sow spinach, radishes, turnips, peas and lettuce.  In cold frames, greenhouse or under tunnels, sow cabbage and cauliflower for late fall/winter frame crops. 

Other crops that can be sown  and grown on inside a frame or tunnel for extended harvest into winter include: beets, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, chicory, dandelion, kohlrabi, lettuce, mizuna, tatsoi, onions, onion sets, parsley, parsnips, radishes, sorrel, and turnips. 

When harvesting cabbage, cut heads above the bottom leaves at a steep angle to avoid rain or irrigation water rot.  After new cabbage buds appear, thin to 3-4 per plant for a crop of mini cabbages.  Cabbage can be prevented from cracking by withholding water and root pruning on one side or twisting the head ¼ turn.

Harvest onions, garlic and shallots.  Dry them on screens in a shed or garage.  Hang dried bulbs in net or jute bags to keep them dry.  

FLOWERS

This month, direct sow seeds of biennials and early blooming perennials.  Sow bulb seeds.  Transplant seedling perennials out into nursery beds.   Direct sow pansy seed in place for next summer.  Cut back violas selected for division.  Encourage and peg down runners to replace mature violet plants.  Prepare frames to over winter violets to bloom in winter. 

Repot auricula primroses in first week of August; take of offsets and pot up.  Sow fresh auricula seed now, saving half for January/February.  

FRUIT

Tie paper bags loosely over grape clusters to protect from birds. 

TREES, SHRUBS AND ROSES

Do not give any nitrogen to your shrubs, roses and trees as that will cause late soft growth easily damaged by frosts.  It is helpful to apply potash instead, as described above.  In August you can plant lawn seed.  Make sure your soil is raked smooth and roll or stamp the seed in so it will not blow away.  A light mulch of dry grass clippings or pine needles will protect the seed until it germinates.  Water the seeded area three or four times a day for a few minutes each time to keep soil moist.  Usually, grass seed comes up within 10 days. 

JULY GARDENING CALENDAR FOR WESTERN MONTANA

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JULY GARDENING CALENDAR

Because July in often hot, water berries (they need constantly moist soil) as well as fruit trees and vegetables as needed.  After garlic, shallots and storage onions flag or look wilted, withhold water.  Carefully dig and cure them over wire (usually one week).  Decrease water to potatoes when tops begin to die back, though this will probably not happen until August this year.  Check for pests frequently (aphids, leafhoppers, squash bugs and leaf miners).  Weed squash, cucumbers, melons, pumpkins to increase production.   Clean and weed borders. 

VEGETABLES

Early in the month you can start some fall crops indoors to plant out in late August/early September: cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, late cabbage, Chinese cabbage, bok choi and radicchio.  All of these are plants that grow and produce well in the cool fall weather.  Plant them out in 5 to 6 weeks, when they have two sets of leaves.  Cauliflower should be ready about 55-60 days from transplanting (October).  Have covers ready for severe frosts below 26 degrees F.  The time period of late June and early July is the best time to plant seeds for healthy fall crops.  You can also direct sow several vegetables all month long: lettuce, kohlrabi, dill, rutabagas, Swiss chard, carrots, collards, endive, fennel, kale, peas, and scallions (green onions).  

For extended harvest into winter, the gardener can grow vegetables in protected frames or tunnels.  If covers are large enough for extended growing, direct sow: beans, broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, celery, kale, rutabaga, salsify and New Zealand spinach.    

If you started seeds in June, you can transplant out leeks.  Plant them deeply and cut the tops shorter.  Cool weather crops including Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and cauliflower are best transplanted out late in July.  Shade them to protect them from transplanting shock and August heat with cardboard or a row cover or tunnel using fabric instead of polyfilm. 

At blossom time, fertilize your peppers with 4 tablespoons Epsom salts in one gallon of water and repeat 2 weeks later.  Fertilize established asparagus with rotted, composted manure and June-bearing strawberries after harvest.  Watch for corn earworms and powdery mildew.  Hill up potatoes to keep the tubers cool.  Transplant and divide iris and primulas. 

Harvest: lettuce, carrots, beets, onions, leeks, peas, cucumbers, tomatoes, squashes, bush beans. 

FLOWERS

Sow seeds (in frames) of early-blooming perennials: primroses, lupines, tulips, and poppies.   Biennials, such as sweet William, Canterbury bells, sweet rocket and stocks can be direct sown now and into August.  Sow winter pansies, but also collect pansy seed from the plants you like the best.  Remove lanky, exhausted growths to encourage short new stems from the center.  Take cuttings of pansies for autumn planting.  Remove violet runners, mulch them, feed them and keep foliage moist by frequently spraying with water.  Take up spring bulbs such as tulips, hyacinths, fritillaries, colchicums, autumn crocuses, etc., when leaves are decayed.  Carefully dig them and dry over wire screen.  Propagate from offsets and store in cool, dry place for the summer. 

FRUIT

Pick up fallen fruit; check for canker.  Propagate strawberries by runners and plant them into new beds. 

TREES, SHRUBS AND ROSES 

Finish trimming evergreens, box edgings and all types of hedges early in the month.  Prune spring blooming shrubs now.  Water lawns during hot weather to keep them green.  Prune old-fashioned once-blooming shrub roses now, after blooms fade, removing no more than 1/3 length of canes.  Trim out old, non-productive and dead wood.  Have a great July!

 

MONTANA PLANTING CALENDAR FOR JUNE

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JUNE GARDENING CALENDAR

Our pictures today are, from left to right: heirloom morning glory “Grandpa Ott’s”, and a seedling ivy geranium.  

This month you can transplant out tender vegetables, early in the month, after frosts.  If you have not planted your garden yet you can still purchase and transplant out tender vegetables that require a shorter season (80 days or fewer).  Cole crops, such as cauliflower and cabbage, and most every transplantable vegetable can be planted until about July 1, when you could begin to sow fall crops.  Fertilize and prune cantaloupes; watch for pests and diseases on garden plants.  Keep a watch on watering if weather is dry and hot; weed after watering as plants pull up easily. 

Vegetables you can direct sow until June 15 include: amaranth, dill, summer savory, edamame beans, chervil, early-maturing corn, NZ and Malabar spinach, carrots, cucumbers, parsnips and pole beans.  Sow successive crops all month of: lettuce, spinach, bush beans, beets, cabbages, cucumbers, onions, peas, radishes, potatoes. 

Transplant out leeks, endive, herbs, plus tender vegetables.  Some of these are: tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, cantaloupe, squash, pumpkins, watermelon.  Fertilize and prune cantaloupes; when they start to vine, foliar feed with 1 tablespoon borax + 1 tablespoon Epsom salts in 1 gallon of water.  Repeat when fruit is 1” to 2” in diameter.

Late in the month (for transplanting out for a fall crop) sow: Brussels sprouts, late variety cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi.  Transplant out in late August/early September (5-6 weeks, with two sets of leaves).  Grow cool, possibly under netting to prevent cabbage loopers.

Harvest: beet greens, cauliflower, cabbage, radishes, lettuce, turnip greens, onions, peas, rhubarb and asparagus.  Harvest herbs: mint, balm, lavender, sage, clary, rosemary, etc. for using fresh, drying or distilling; when just coming into flower.  Lay them in the shade or on a screen in a shed to dry. 

Direct sow tender annuals and half hardy annuals early in the month (before the 15th): zinnias, marigolds, cosmos, annual euphorbia, gypsophila, nasturtiums, scarlet runner beans, Scabiosa atropurpurea,  stocks, sunflowers.  Sow nigella (succession plant every 2 to 4 weeks until end of month). 

Finish transplanting perennial starts and annual starts.  Stake dahlias, delphiniums; mulch dahlias; check for slugs around auriculas, cannas, delphiniums, hollyhocks and hosta. 

Take up spring bulbs such as tulips, hyacinths, fritillaries, colchicums, autumn crocuses, etc., when leaves are decayed.  Carefully dig and dry them over a wire screen.  Propagate from offsets, store in cool, dry place for the summer. 

Plant strawberry runners into new beds.  Thin tree fruits after bloom so no fruit touches (this discourages codling moths); protect (cover) cherries from birds, watch for pests on fruit trees, shrubs and roses.  Wash aphids off with a force of water.  Set out apple maggot traps in early to mid-June (1 for each dwarf tree; 2-3 for each semi-dwarf tree; and up to 6 for a full-sized tree).  Scrape off bugs and apply a fresh coating every two weeks. Remove loose bark and wrap trunks with cardboard or burlap, periodically removing it to capture codling moth pupae.  During the growing season, remove branches affected by fire blight, cutting at least 6 inches below affected wood.  Sterilize tools with alcohol or a 10% bleach solution between cuts.   Set out peach borer traps by the 15th.  

Trim evergreens and all types of hedges, and be sure to water lawns in hot weather. 

MAY GARDENING CALENDAR

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MAY GARDENING CALENDAR

It looks like this year May is going to be our primary planting month, due to the cold spring.  Some general duties to perform: mulch berries, hill leeks, watch for pests: cutworms, pea weevils, root maggot flies, aphids, powdery mildew.  Watch for frosts before putting out tender plants or have row covers and/or tunnels ready.  Harden off plants for a week to ten days before planting in the open garden.  Plant successive crops of cool-loving crops until the end of the month.  Hoe and weed beds.  Weeding is very important in May.

VEGETABLES

Sow indoors first week of the month for transplanting out late in May or early in June: cucumbers, squash, pumpkins, cantaloupes, watermelons, gourds. 

Plant successive crops of: lettuce, spinach, beets, onions, potatoes, peas, and turnips. 

Direct sow (usually about May 10): beans, corn, dill, edamame soy beans, lettuce, spinach, NZ spinach, okra, parsley, leeks, parsnips, scallions, summer savory, sunflowers.  Late in the month, when soil has warmed, direct sow: Lima beans, cantaloupes, cucumbers, okra, pumpkins, squash, and watermelons. 

Transplant out early: artichokes, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, leeks, Asian greens, pak choi, and tomatoes (if you can cover them when it gets cold).  Late in the month, if weather permits or you have cover, transplant out: peppers, eggplant, cantaloupes, cucumbers, okra, pumpkins, squash, and watermelons.

Harvest: asparagus, greens, rhubarb.  From frames, a cold tunnel or greenhouse, harvest: radishes, lettuce, turnips, peas, and any cole crops you have started early and grown through winter months. 

Watch for pests: root maggots, wireworms, cutworms, and cabbage butterflies.  Cover crops with netting, row covers, tunnels and fabric.  Use cans or milk jugs with both ends cut out for cutworms, especially on cole crops (brassicas), tomatoes and cucumbers. 

FLOWERS

May 1, finish sowing zinnias and scarlet runner beans for transplanting out later.  Sow direct outside (usually May 10 or so): China asters, cosmos, annual dianthus, balsam, moonvine, morning glory, vinca, marigolds, browallias, sunflowers, runner beans, bachelor’s buttons, castor beans, cockscomb, nicotiana, nasturtiums, poppies, sweet sultan,  sweet peas, gomphrena, annual grasses, stocks, bells of Ireland, bupleurum,  ammi. 

Late in the month, direct sow: annual euphorbia and gypsophila.  Transplant out tender flowers when frosts are over.  Transplant out perennials started from seed in January after hardening off.  

Shade ranunculuses, anemones, and bulb seedlings; take up fall-flowering bulbs and dry for summer storage.  Propagate bulbs by offsets.  Keep a careful watch over newly planted pansies, violets, violas; watering if needed.  Check for pest damage; prepare manure tea. 

FRUIT

Set out apple maggot lures before bloom, if not already done. 

Thin tree fruits after bloom so no fruit touches (this discourages codling moths); protect (cover) cherries from birds.  Watch for pests on fruit trees, shrubs, roses.  Wash off with a force of water.  Set out peach borer traps by the 15th.  Set out apple maggot traps late in the month or in early June.  Remove fallen fruit weekly to discourage codling moths.  Remove loose bark and wrap trunks with cardboard or burlap, periodically removing it capture codling moth pupae.  During growing season, remove branches affected by fire blight at least 6” below affected area.  Between cuts, dip tools in alcohol or a 10% bleach solution. 

Make sure to water newly planted fruit trees and strawberries.  Trim off runners of strawberries to increase production, if not needed for propagation.  

Make softwood cuttings now until midsummer of grapes.

TREES, SHRUBS AND ROSES

Watch for tent caterpillars late in the month.  BT will control them. 

Cut off any dead or diseased wood on roses, sealing the cuts with water-based or wood glue to discourage wasp cane borers.  Spread bone meal, Epsom salts and composted manure or alfalfa meal around roses, leaving a 2” empty space on the surface of the soil around rose stems.  Take softwood cuttings of roses after petal fall.

MOTHER’S DAY SPECIALS! MAY 13 AND 14

2-FOR-1 CRACKERJACK MARIGOLDS (4” AND 6-PACKS)

2-FOR-1 BLACK PETUNIAS (4”)

PLUS MANY OTHER SPECIALS THROUGHOUT THE STORE!!!

APRIL GARDENING CALENDAR

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APRIL GARDENING CALENDAR

Our picture today is a photograph of a green-edged auricula primrose.  As a whole, the auricula section of the genus Primula is fascinating, diverse, and quite varied in form and color.  A hundred and fifty years ago auricula primroses were extremely popular plants in Europe and America.   April is their prime bloom time!  

GENERAL APRIL GARDENING CALENDAR

Finish pruning and grafting of fruit trees if not already done.  Plant grapes and other fruiting perennials, shrubs and vines; fertilize and prune raspberries and blackberries.  Start many flowers inside for transplanting out and direct sow the last hardy annuals.  Direct sow many vegetables late in the month and into May.  April is characterized by ups and downs in temperature—watch for frosts!  Protect frames at night and admit air daily.  Place row covers on newly transplanted, slightly tender plants. 

VEGETABLES

If not done already, sow indoors, for transplanting out early in the month: basil, cabbage, celery, tomatoes, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, head lettuce, artichokes, Brussels sprouts, Asian cabbage, leeks, greens.  After the 15th, sow watermelon, cantaloupe, squash, pumpkins and cucumbers into peat pots for easy transplanting. 

Direct sow these outdoors once weather permits and soil temperatures are above 45 degrees:  beets, arugula, carrots, caraway, celery, chervil, chives, cilantro, dill, fennel, thyme, oregano, sorrel, collards, mache, fava beans, cress, Jerusalem artichokes, kale, kohlrabi, cabbage, cauliflower, leeks, lettuce, mustard greens, rhubarb, turnip greens, onions, parsley, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, salsify, scallions, spinach, Swiss chard.  Sow corn (after the 20th).  

Harden-off vegetables in frames, or by exposing them outdoors a few hours at a time.  Transplant the following hardy vegetables outside around the middle of the month (they can take some light frost): asparagus, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, endive, leeks, lettuce, onion sets and plants, Asian greens, parsley.  

FLOWERS

Sow indoors April 1 for transplanting out: Chinese asters (Callistephus), cerinthe, celosia, craspedia, calendulas, annual centaurea, cleome, cosmos, cynoglossum,  eragrostis, Panicum, Pennisetum, and annual grasses.  Late in the month: sow zinnias indoors. 

Direct sow outdoors all month: annual alyssum Lobularia maritima), bupleurum, carnations, pinks, sweet Williams, cynoglossum, stocks, rose campion, wall flowers, lychnis, lupines, lavateras, columbines, valerian, polyanthus, auriculas, Canterbury bells, hollyhocks, honeysuckles, rockets, honesty, fox gloves, snapdragons, sweet peas, poppies, larkspur, cornflowers, nigella, lavatera, poppies, valerian, kiss-me-by-the-garden-gate, dill, morning glory, sweet peas and wildflowers.   

Weed and clean borders.  Divide perennials early in the month: carnations, bellis, achilleas, asters, mums, campanulas, centranthus, coreopsis, dicentra, dodecatheon, echinops, euphorbias, gauras, gaillardias, gentians, helianthus, hellebores, daylilies, heucheras, hostas, lobelias, papavers, oenotheras, phlomis, monarda, liatris, and marrubiums.  

Start dahlia tubers this month and make cuttings if possible. 

Shade auricula primroses from intensifying spring sun.   This is when auriculas need the most water, but remember— never waterlog the compost.  The month of April is their peak bloom period and hybridizing can take place now.  Shows are held this time of year. 

FRUIT

By April 15, finish pruning /grafting/planting fruit trees; spray Bordeaux mix on fruit trees suffering from fire blight; check fruit trees for pests.  Spray superior oil on dormant trees (before leaf out).  Lime-sulfur will control anthracnose or blight on raspberries if applied when the buds first show silver, or on currants and gooseberries at bud break.  Wait three weeks if you decide to spray lime-sulfur (use caution) as a fungicide on roses, lilacs, dormant shrubs, fruit trees, evergreens. 

Weed fruit trees, strawberries, cane fruits.  Set out apple pest traps two weeks before bud break.

TREES, SHRUBS AND ROSES

Lay out lawns by either direct-seeding or purchase turf and roll it out.  If the weather gets windy and dry, water your new lawn frequently. 

Finish transplanting roses and other shrubs (the earlier the better).  Prune established roses after severe frosts.  Cut out all dead and crossed wood, and seal the cuts with water-based glue to prevent the drilling wasps from destroying canes.   Dress rose plants with Epsom salts, wood ashes, compost, manure, alfalfa meal, bone meal, kelp meal, bunt earth, spent hops, etc. , but keep fertilizers 2 inches away from the canes at the base of the plant.  

 

 

 

MARCH GARDENING CALENDAR

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MARCH GARDENING CALENDAR

March is a very busy month for Montana gardeners!  A brief summary of things we can do now is: plant lettuce and spinach in cold frames; plant/prune cane fruits, fruit trees, deciduous trees; plant evergreens as soon as ground thaws; plant rhubarb, strawberries, asparagus, sea kale, and artichokes; weed and clean borders, plant perennials, sow seeds of hardy annuals and biennials outside; sow seeds of tender annuals and vegetables inside.  Clean pansy beds and manure them; cover cold frames at night and admit air during the day. 

VEGETABLES

Late in the month, begin to harden off cool loving vegetables (from a January sowing) in frames.  Sow indoors: broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, head lettuce, artichokes, Brussels sprouts, Asian cabbage, greens, peppers (finish peppers early in the month).  Start tomatoes also.  Late in the month direct-sow outdoors: asparagus, beets, arugula, carrots, celery, chervil, chives, cilantro, dill, fennel, collards, mache, fava beans, cress, kale, kohlrabi, leeks, lettuce, mustard greens, rhubarb, turnip greens, onions, parsley, peas, radishes, scallions, spinach and Swiss chard.  As soon as weather permits plant: asparagus roots, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, garlic, shallots, lettuce, onion sets and plants, horseradish, strawberries and Jerusalem artichokes.  Finish sowing herb seeds this month.

FLOWERS

Begin dividing perennials as soon as the ground is thawed.  Direct sow outdoors: annual alyssum, pinks, sweet Williams, stocks, rose campion, wall flowers, lychnis, lupines, lavateras, columbines, valerian, polyanthus, auriculas, Canterbury bells, cynoglossum, hollyhocks, honeysuckles, rockets, honesty, fox gloves, snapdragons, sweet peas, poppies, larkspur, cornflowers, nigella, lavatera, valerian, poppies, kiss-me-by-the-garden-gate and dill.

FRUIT

Fertilize (spread organics), plant and prune fruit trees, blackberries, raspberries, grapes, currants, blueberries.  Clean strawberry beds and make new beds.  Fertilize (spread organics) on strawberries and asparagus.  Clean up after pruning fruit trees; remove dead wood, dropped fruit, and inspect trunks for egg masses.   Spray Bordeaux mix on fruit trees that suffer from fire blight after carefully pruning out affected wood.  (Cut 6 inches below signs of infection, sterilizing pruning tools between cuts with alcohol, or a 10% bleach solution.)  Spray superior oil on dormant trees (before leaf out).  Wait three weeks after dormant spray if you decide to spray lime-sulfur (use caution) as a fungicide on roses, lilacs, dormant shrubs, fruit trees, evergreens. 

TREES, SHRUBS AND ROSES

Plant evergreens, roses and other shrubs during March.  This month is the very best time of the year to move or plant evergreens.  Wait until April to prune roses as canes often die back from late frosts if cut too early.  Dress with your roses Epsom salts now, and apply wood ashes, compost, manure, alfalfa meal, bone meal, kelp meal, and other organic amendments to rose, perennial, fruit and vegetable garden beds. 

A NOTE ON SEED

Now is a great time to test the germination on your stored vegetable seeds.  To establish a percentage of germination for your seed, place 10 seeds in a moist paper towel, lay it on a plate; with a loose cover of plastic wrap, or a glass or plastic dome.  Put the plate in a warm location and wait a few days.  The number of seeds that germinate will give you a rough idea of the percentage of live seed you have.  This kind of test is a good way to see if your old purchased seed, or seed that you have saved yourself, will grow. 

Now is also a prudent time to plan which varieties of vegetables you might want to save seed from for next year.  Once selected and growing, plan to save seed from your best plants.  Choose plants mid-season in their fruiting and mark them with tags or labels, as ones to save seed from.  Pick the fruits when past eating ripeness; clean the seed carefully.  Dry it well before storing in clean, dry glass jars with metal lids.  Label the jars carefully with variety name and year of harvest.  Store your seeds in a cool, dark, dry place so they have the best chance of staying alive.  Seed-saving techniques vary from species to species, so it is good to obtain as much information as you can before you try.  A great book is Saving Seeds by Montana authors Robert Gough and Cheryl Moore-Gough; another is The Heirloom Gardener by Carolyn Jabs.  An excellent book about seed starting, saving and plant propagation is: The Royal Horticultural Society Propagating Plants, Edited by Alan Toogood.  These three books may not be the newest, but their information is detailed and practical, especially the latter book.  An online article with basic information about seed-saving, including lots of pictures, can be found at: https://robinsonloveplants.com/saving-seeds/